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Introduction of Oil Products in Business Scope

一、石脑油naphtha

Also known as chemical light oil, also known as crude gasoline, is a light oil for chemical raw materials produced by processing crude oil or other raw materials.

1. Main components: C5~C7 of alkanes;

2. Properties: Colorless transparent or yellowish liquid with special odor and insoluble in water under normal temperature and pressure;

3. Main uses: Many kinds of organic raw materials can be separated, such as gasoline, benzene, kerosene, asphalt, etc. For example, naphtha can be pyrolyzed to ethylene, propylene, catalytic reforming to benzene, toluene, xylene, etc.

4. Processing technology: Naphtha is a kind of light oil, which is obtained by distillation of crude oil or secondary processing of petroleum. 

二、芳香烃:Aromatic hydrocarbon

It usually refers to hydrocarbons with benzene ring structure in the molecule, which is a kind of closed chain.

1. Common aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, hexamethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, n-propyl benzene, cumene, diphenylmethane, triphenylmethane, styrene, phenylacetylene, etc.

2. Properties: Aromatic hydrocarbons are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents, such as ether, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum ether and other non-polar solvents. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons are lighter than water. The boiling point increases with the increase of relative molecular mass. The melting point is related not only to the relative molecular mass, but also to its structure. The melting point is higher.

3. Main uses: Benzene is a widely used organic solvent, which is a solvent for adhesives, oily coatings, inks, etc.

4. Processing technology: Coal and petroleum are raw materials for the preparation of simple aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene; 1) Coal is heated to 1000 C under anaerobic conditions, coal molecules produce coal tar through thermal fractionation, while benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and other aromatic compounds can be produced from coal tar; 2) naphthalene and other aromatic compounds are mainly contained in Petroleum fractions. The main methods of converting hydrocarbons and chain hydrocarbons into aromatic hydrocarbons are reforming and aromatization. Aromatization refers to the process of heating dehydrogenation of alicyclic compounds containing six-membered rings to form aromatic compounds in the presence of platinum, palladium and nickel catalysts, including chain hydrocarbon cracking, isomerization, closure, ring expansion, hydrogen transfer and olefins. Hydrogen absorption and other processes.

 

三、甲基叔丁基醚(MTBE)Methyl tert-butyl ether

A gasoline additive with high octane number has much lower chemical oxygen content than methanol, which is beneficial to warming up vehicles and saving fuel, low latent heat of evaporation and cold start. It is often used for blending unleaded gasoline and low-lead oil.

1. Properties: Colorless, transparent, high octane number liquid with ether-like odor;

2. Main uses: 1) often used in the blending of unleaded gasoline and low-lead oil; 2) can also be re-cracked into isobutylene as raw materials for rubber and other chemical products; 3) the best quality methyl tert-butyl ether can be used as medicine and pharmaceutical intermediates; 4) methyl tert-butyl ether is also an important raw material for the production of polymeric isobutylene. Material; 5) for the production of methacrolein and methacrylic acid;

3. Processing technology: Methyl tert-butyl ether is a substitute for tetraethyl lead at present. Isobutylene and methanol in pyrolysis carbon 4 were synthesized by catalysis of Macroporous Sulfonic Acid Cation exchange resin and refined. 

四、柴油diesel oil

Lightweight petroleum products, complex hydrocarbon (carbon atom number 10-22) mixtures, for diesel engine fuel;

1. Main classifications: Diesel oil is divided into light diesel (boiling point range is 180-370 C) and heavy diesel (boiling point range is 350-410 C). Diesel oil is classified according to pour point, and light diesel oil has six grades: 5, 0, -10, -20, -35, -50, and heavy diesel has three grades: 10, 20 and 30.

2. Main uses: Diesel oil is widely used in large vehicles, railway locomotives and ships; it is mainly used as liquid fuel for diesel engines. Diesel oil has the characteristics of low energy consumption, low pollution and environmental protection, so some small cars and even high-performance vehicles are converted to diesel oil.

3. Processing technology: 1) The method of synthesizing biodiesel from oils and fats, the method of producing biodiesel from animal oil, the additives of biodiesel and biofuel oil, the emulsifier of light diesel produced from waste animal and vegetable oils and its application; low-cost and pollution-free biomass liquefaction process and equipment, low-energy biomass The pyrolysis process and equipment, the method of fast pyrolysis of microalgae to produce biodiesel; 2) the depolymerization kettle for extracting steam and diesel oil from waste plastics, waste oil, waste vegetable oil foot, the method for preparing fuel gas from biomass gasification and the gasification reaction device; 3) the process method for extracting petroleum products from vegetable oil foot, and the plasma The methods of producing syngas from biomass by pyrolysis and gasification, preparation of biodiesel from heterotrophic algae by amylase hydrolysis, and production of liquid fuel from biomass; 4) the process of producing fuel from vegetable oil waste, the method of preparing bio-oil from biomass hydrolysis residue, and the producer of extracting gasoline and diesel from vegetable oil residue (5) The method of removing colloid from catalytic cracking diesel oil, the new environmentally friendly process of extracting fuel oil from waste rubber (waste plastics, waste engine oil), and the chemical refining method of removing total oxidative insolubles and colloid from diesel oil. 

五、甲苯toluene

1. Properties: Colourless clarifying liquid, with benzene-like odor, strong refractive property, can be mixed with ethanol, ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon disulfide and glacial acetic acid, very slightly soluble in water;

2. Main uses: toluene is widely used as solvent and additive for gasoline with high octane number, and is also an important raw material for organic chemical industry. A series of intermediates derived from toluene are widely used in the production of fine chemicals such as dyes, medicines, pesticides, explosives, auxiliaries and spices, and also in the synthetic materials industry.

3. Production process: Toluene is mainly produced from crude oil through petrochemical process. 

六、二甲苯xylene

1. Properties: Colorless transparent liquid with special aromatic hydrocarbon odor, flammable, can be mixed with ethanol, chloroform or ether at will, insoluble in water;

2. Main applications: 1) used as solvents in coatings, resins, dyes, inks and other industries; 2) used as synthetic monomers or solvents in pharmaceutical, explosives, pesticides and other industries; 3) used as high octane gasoline components, which is an important raw material for organic chemical industry; 4) also used to remove asphalt from the body; 5) used mainly in hospital pathology department for tissue. Transparency and dewaxing of slices;

3. Production process: 1) According to the different boiling points of crude benzene components, xylene can be obtained by distillation of distillates with boiling ranges of 135-145 degrees C; 2) light gasoline obtained by atmospheric distillation of platinum reforming (initial distillation point is about 138 degrees C). The distillates above 65 degrees C are intercepted, and harmful impurities are removed by catalytic hydrogenation with molybdenum-containing catalysts and then catalyzed by platinum. Benzene, toluene, xylene and other products were obtained by reforming the chemical agent, extracting with diethylene glycol ether solvent, and then rectifying one column by one. 3) Toluene disproportionation method, under the action of catalyst, transfers methyl of one toluene to another 166 catalyst (aluminium-deficient mordenite) for reforming toluene (nitration grade) and reforming cycle. Benzene and xylene are obtained by reaction of 85% ~ 90% cyclohexane at 400 ± 2 ℃ and pressure of 2MPa; 4) xylene is obtained by hydrofining, catalytic reforming and separation of light petroleum fraction mixed benzene; 5) coking crude benzene is obtained by washing and fractionation. 

七、异辛烷Isooctane

Trimethylpentane, commonly known as isooctane, is an isomer of octane.

1. Properties: Colorless, transparent liquid;

2. Main uses: Isooctane is the standard material for testing the explosion resistance of gasoline. It is used as the standard fuel for determining the octane number of gasoline. It is also used as an additive for automobile gasoline and aviation gasoline. It is used as a solvent in butadiene polymerization. It is used in organic synthesis and as a comparative sample for solvent and gas chromatography.

3. Production process: 1) from petroleum refining, can also be synthesized. For example, isobutane reacts with isobutene in the presence of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride; (2) isooctane can also be prepared from by-product of 264 antioxidant and isobutene polymer by distillation and hydrogenation; (3) olefin can be separated by silica gel column and refined by distillation; (4) isobutane and isobutene can be obtained by petroleum refining; (4) isobutane and isobutene can also be obtained by distillation and hydrogenation. It is synthesized in the presence of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. 

八、催化裂化汽油FCC gasoline

The composition of gasoline prepared by catalytic cracking process is studied. RON of Fat Octane Number is about 91. The content of olefin in FCC gasoline is higher, which needs to be blended with other blending components of gasoline with low olefin content and suitable octane number. The blending component of gasoline produced by catalytic cracking process mainly accounts for 1/3 of commercial gasoline in foreign countries, while in my country, it accounts for 1/3 of commercial gasoline. The chemical composition of FCC gasoline is mainly isoalkanes, isoolefins and aromatics. 

九、芳构化Aromatization

Aromatization is the conversion of low molecular hydrocarbons into mixed aromatics containing benzene, toluene and xylene by aromatization reaction under the action of catalysts. At the same time, the gas phase containing hydrogen, methane and C 2 to C 5 fractions is generated. Then, through a series of separation, the standard mixed aromatics, light aromatics and heavy aromatics are finally produced. Aromatization is a new petroleum processing technology developed in recent 20 years, which is characterized by the direct conversion of low molecular weight hydrocarbons to light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene using modified zeolite molecular sieve catalysts. 

十、乙二醇Glycol

1. Properties: Colorless, sweet, viscous liquid;

2. Main Uses: Mainly used in making polyester polyester, polyester resin, hygroscopicity agent, plasticizer, surfactant, synthetic fiber, cosmetics and explosives, and used as solvents for dyes, inks, etc., antifreeze agent for engine, gas dehydrating agent, making resin, also used in wetting cellophane, fibre, leather and adhesives. It can produce synthetic resin PET, fibre grade PET is polyester fiber, bottle grade PET is used to make mineral water bottles, etc. It can also produce alkyd resin, glyoxal, etc. It can also be used as antifreeze, besides being used as antifreeze for automobiles, it can also be used for conveying industrial cooling capacity. It is commonly called carrier refrigerant, and it can also be used as water. As a condensant;

3. Production process: chloroethanol method, ethylene oxide hydration, gas phase catalytic hydration, ethylene direct hydration; ethylene oxide and water under the action of sulfuric acid catalyst hydration reaction, formaldehyde method, ethylene glycol vacuum distillation, ethylene glycol vacuum distillation. 

十一、乙烯焦油Ethylene tar

Ethylene cracking tar is the product of high temperature condensation of raw materials and products during the steam cracking of ethylene cracking raw materials; the composition of ethylene cracking tar is extremely complex, in which ninhydrin, methylninhydrin and their homologues are relatively high, and the components of naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, ethylnaphthalene, dimethylnaphthalene, anthracene, Ecuador and phenanthrene are important for organic chemical synthesis. Material. 

十二、混合芳烃Mixed aromatics

1. Properties: Mixed aromatics are colorless transparent liquids, odor, and aromatics mixture extracted from reforming aromatics of narrow fractions with special odor.

2. Main uses: Benzene, toluene and xylene can be separated by separation. It is mainly used in rubber industry, adhesives, shoemaking industry, etc. It is also the main raw material for the production of p-xylene (PX).

3. Production process: methanol (isobutanol or fusel alcohol) is mixed with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature and pressure as A2 storage tank; compound additives are added to substance A for emulsification reaction to obtain the final product; the emulsified mixture is filtered by paper filter, and its pH value is adjusted to 6.8-7.2. 

十三、有机热载体Organic heat carrier

Organic heat carriers are general designations of organic substances used as heat transfer media. Organic heat carriers include all organic media used for indirect heat transfer purposes, such as heat conducting fluids, heat conducting oils, organic heat transfer media and heat media. According to chemical composition, they can be classified as synthetic organic heat carriers and mineral oil organic heat carriers. Boiling range can be classified as gas-phase organic heat carrier and liquid-phase organic heat carrier.


     十四、92#汽油92# gasoline

1. Properties: Gasoline is transparent liquid, flammable, distillation range is 30 ~220 C, the main components are C5~C12 aliphatic hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons, as well as a certain amount of aromatic hydrocarbons, gasoline has a high octane number (detonation combustion resistance). Different gasoline components, such as straight-run gasoline, catalytic cracking gasoline and catalytic reforming gasoline, are refined and blended with high octane number components. They are mainly used as fuels for automobile ignition internal combustion engines.

2. Usage: Gasoline products can be divided into aviation gasoline, vehicle gasoline and solvent gasoline according to their uses. The first two are mainly used as fuel for gasoline engines, widely used in automobiles, motorcycles, speedboats, helicopters, agricultural and forestry aircraft, etc. Solvent gasoline is used in rubber, paint, grease, spices and other production, gasoline components can also dissolve water insoluble substances such as oil contamination, play the role of cleaning oil contamination, gasoline components as organic solutions, can also be used as extractants.

十五、工业己烷commercial hexane

1. Properties: Hexane, molecular formula C6H14, is an alkane containing six carbon atoms. It has five isomers: n-hexane, 2-methyl pentane, 3-methyl pentane, 2,3-dimethyl butane and 2,2-dimethyl butane. Among them, n-hexane can be used as a good organic solvent, which is widely used in chemical organic synthesis, vegetable oil extraction, cleaning and decontamination of mechanical equipment surface. Hexane is liquid at room temperature.

Hexane has a density of 0.672, a melting point of - 95, a boiling point of 68 - 70, a flash point of - 22, and is insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol and ether. Hexane is highly flammable and reacts with halogens.

Uses: mainly used as solvents, such as solvent for olefin polymerization such as propylene, extractant for edible vegetable oil, solvent for rubber and paint, and diluent for pigments. In addition, it is a high octane fuel.

It is mainly used for atmospheric monitoring and preparation of standard gas and calibration gas.

(2) Used as a solvent and a reference substance for chromatographic analysis. It is used for refractive index determination, moisture determination in methanol, and organic synthesis.

(3) Major solvent. Used as a solvent in cosmetics, mainly used as solvent for cosmetics such as nail polish and cosmetics.

(4) Used in organic synthesis, as solvents, chemical reagents, paint diluents, media for polymerization, etc.


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